The hidden side of politics

Mexican Americans saw own racial terror before ‘Red Summer’

Reported by Washington Times:

ALBUQUERQUE, N.M. (AP) – Twenty years ago, a knock on the door opened the past for Arlinda Valencia.

A relative had come to pay his respects on the death of Valencia’s father. He then revealed a shocking secret: The family was descended from survivors of a 1918 massacre along the U.S.-Mexico border.

In an account later confirmed by Valencia’s 96-year-old great-uncle, the Texas Rangers and U.S. soldiers killed her great-grandfather and 14 other men and boys. The massacre that all but wiped the town of Porvenir, Texas, was part of a campaign of terror that largely targeted Mexican Americans.

“But the older people never said anything to us. Not a word,” Valencia said. “We couldn’t believe it.”

As the U.S. prepares to mark the 100th anniversary of “Red Summer” – a period in 1919 when white mobs attacked and murdered African Americans in dozens of cities across the country – some historians and Latino activists say now is the time to acknowledge the terror experienced by Mexican Americans around the same period.



In towns, villages and cities in the West, Mexican Americans were subjected to torture, lynchings and other violence at the hands of white mobs and law enforcement agencies such as the Texas Rangers. Historians say that from 1910 to 1920, an estimated 5,000 people of Mexican descent were killed or vanished in the U.S.

Often the violence was so barbaric it attracted the attention of newspapers abroad and the fledgling NAACP.

Then, it was forgotten.

“When you talk about villages and small towns being wiped off the face of the earth … that’s what happened to Porvenir,” said Valencia, 67, a leader of a teachers union in El Paso, Texas.

Monica Muñoz Martinez, the author of “The Injustice Never Leaves You: Anti-Mexican Violence in Texas” and an American studies professor at Brown University, said Mexican American families often kept stories of violence from their children out of fear because the perpetrators and their offspring remained in key law enforcement positions or elected offices.

“Now there’s a new generation that’s saying, ‘We need to make these histories public and we need a public reckoning,’” Martinez said.

As with attacks on African American men, the mob violence usually stemmed from rumors about a crime that was pinned on Mexican Americans with little or no evidence.

In 1910, a white mob in Rocksprings, Texas, lynched 20-year-old Antonio Rodríguez and burned the body after he was accused of killing a white woman. He never received a trial; instead, he was kidnapped from jail.

Four years later, Adolfo Padilla, jailed in Santa Fe, New Mexico, on suspicion of killing his wife, was seized by masked men and chopped into pieces.

In 1915, brothers Jose and Hilario Leon were beaten and hanged by two white Arizona police officers during an interrogation. Their bodies were left to rot in the desert gulch. The officers were later convicted of murder, but that was a rare outcome.

Mexican American families sometimes went to local and state authorities to complain and often suffered violent retribution, historians say.

It was the bloodshed in the ranching community of Porvenir that stirred the most outrage among Mexican American reformers and in the international press.

On the early morning of Jan. 28, 1918, the Texas Rangers and four local white ranchers surrounded Porvenir on the suspicion that villagers were sympathetic to bandits or cattle raiders. The men, with the help of a U.S. cavalry regiment, woke up the residents, seized 15 able-bodied men and boys and killed them.

“For perhaps ten seconds we couldn’t hear anything, and then it seemed that every woman down there screamed at the same time,” cavalry Pvt. Robert Keil later wrote. “We could also hear what sounded like praying, and, of course, the small children were screaming with fright.”

The Army returned to the village days later and burned it to the ground.

A Texas legislative committee investigated, and Rep. J.T. Canales, the only Hispanic member of the legislature, called witnesses who told stories of terror. But defenders of the Rangers branded Canales delusional, the committee absolved the law enforcement agency, and Canales lost his bid for re-election in 1920.

Nine years later, he helped found the civil rights group the League of United Latin American Citizens, which exists today.

Recently, a group of academics, activists and journalists formed a group called Refusing to Forget to educate the public about violence against Mexican Americans and set up historical markers to memorialize the most brutal episodes.

John Moran Gonzalez, director of the Center for Mexican American Studies at the University of Texas, said the group has faced resistance from local historical societies. “They say things like, ‘Why are you bringing this up now? Why are you inflaming racial tensions?’” Gonzalez said. “They are embarrassed.”

Valencia eventually got a historical marker near the site of the Porvenir massacre, about a four-hour drive east of El Paso. Nothing remains of the village, and the bodies of those killed rest in shallow graves across the Rio Grande in Mexico.

In researching the massacre, Valencia found an affidavit by her great-grandmother describing the killing of her husband and her search for justice. But justice never came.

“She committed suicide,” Valencia said.

Her surviving great-uncle, Juan Flores, who was 13 at the time of the massacre and would later describe how he found his father’s mutilated body and other corpses, had nightmares for the rest of his life and eventually underwent shock treatment.

Flores hadn’t told his immediate family of the massacre until Valencia asked him about it.

“Everyone just thought he was crazy,” she said. “But he was living with a secret that was killing him from the inside.”

___

Cedar Attanasio reported from El Paso, Texas, where he covers immigration. Follow him on Twitter at https://twitter.com/viaCedar

___

Russell Contreras is a member of The Associated Press’ race and ethnicity team. Follow him on Twitter at http://twitter.com/russcontreras

___

EDITOR’S NOTE: Hundreds of African Americans died at the hands of white mob violence during “Red Summer” but little is known nationally about this summer of violence 100 years later. As part of AP’s coverage plans for Red Summer, we will take a multiplatform look at those who were attacked and killed by whites in cities and towns around the nation in a spate of violence: https://www.apnews.com/RedSummer

Sign up for Daily Newsletters

Copyright © 2019 The Washington Times, LLC.

The Washington Times Comment Policy

The Washington Times welcomes your comments on Spot.im, our third-party provider. Please read our Comment Policy before commenting.

Source:Washington Times

Share

1,684 Comments

  1. Acquista il visto per l'inglese Reply

    An outstanding share! I have just forwarded this onto a co-worker
    who had been doing a little research on this. And he in fact bought me breakfast due to the fact that I stumbled upon it for
    him… lol. So allow me to reword this…. Thanks for the meal!!
    But yeah, thanks for spending the time to talk about this subject here on your website.

  2. domanda di visto Reply

    Heya are using WordPress for your site platform?
    I’m new to the blog world but I’m trying to get started and create my own. Do you require any html coding knowledge to make
    your own blog? Any help would be greatly appreciated!

  3. domanda di visto Reply

    Hello there! This article could not be written any better!
    Looking at this article reminds me of my previous roommate!
    He constantly kept talking about this. I most certainly will send this post to him.
    Fairly certain he’ll have a very good read. Many thanks for sharing!

  4. Acquista il visto per l'inglese Reply

    An outstanding share! I have just forwarded this onto
    a co-worker who has been doing a little research on this.
    And he actually ordered me breakfast due to the fact that I discovered it for
    him… lol. So let me reword this…. Thank YOU for the meal!!
    But yeah, thanx for spending the time to discuss this topic
    here on your site.

  5. ESTA Visa Reply

    Hi! I just wanted to ask if you ever have any issues with hackers?
    My last blog (wordpress) was hacked and I ended up losing a
    few months of hard work due to no data backup. Do you have any solutions to stop hackers?

  6. criminal record check Reply

    Great beat ! I wish to apprentice while you amend your web site, how could
    i subscribe for a blog web site? The account aided me a acceptable deal.
    I had been tiny bit acquainted of this your broadcast provided bright clear idea

  7. servicii web design Reply

    Today, I went to the beach with my children. I found a sea shell and gave it to my 4 year
    old daughter and said “You can hear the ocean if you put this to your ear.” She put
    the shell to her ear and screamed. There was a hermit crab
    inside and it pinched her ear. She never wants to go back!
    LoL I know this is totally off topic but I had to tell someone!

  8. web design bucuresti Reply

    I am extremely impressed along with your writing talents
    as smartly as with the structure on your blog. Is this a paid
    topic or did you customize it yourself? Either way keep up the excellent quality writing, it’s rare to see a great blog like this one nowadays..

  9. www.wattpad.com Reply

    Having read this I believed it was rather enlightening.

    I appreciate you taking the time and effort to put this content together.
    I once again find myself spending way too much time
    both reading and commenting. But so what, it was still worthwhile!

  10. this Reply

    I simply want to say I am just very new to blogs and absolutely loved your blog. Almost certainly I’m planning to bookmark your blog post . You surely have outstanding well written articles. With thanks for sharing with us your web-site.

  11. you can check here Reply

    I just want to tell you that I am new to weblog and truly enjoyed you’re web-site. Most likely I’m want to bookmark your website . You amazingly come with remarkable writings. Many thanks for revealing your blog.

  12. series24 Reply

    Greetings! This is my first visit to your blog! We are a team of volunteers and starting a new project in a community in the same niche. Your blog provided us useful information to work on. You have done a extraordinary job!

  13. Judi Bola Terpercaya Reply

    Hi! This post could not be written any better! Reading through this post reminds me of my old room mate! He always kept talking about this. I will forward this article to him. Pretty sure he will have a good read. Thank you for sharing!

  14. Anton Matney Reply

    Thank you for sharing superb information. Your web site is so cool. I’m impressed by the details that you’ve on this website. It reveals how nicely you perceive this subject. Bookmarked this website page, will come back for more articles.

  15. คาสิโนออนไลน์ Reply

    I was curious if you ever considered changing the page layout of your website? Its very well written; I love what youve got to say. But maybe you could a little more in the way of content so people could connect with it better. Youve got an awful lot of text for only having one or 2 pictures. Maybe you could space it out better?

  16. instapaper.com Reply

    I like what you guys are up too. Such smart work and reporting!

    Keep up the superb works guys I have incorporated you guys to my blogroll.
    I think it’ll improve the value of my web site :).

  17. Alonzo Vongunten Reply

    With havin so much content and articles do you ever run into any problems of plagorism or copyright infringement? My site has a lot of exclusive content I’ve either authored myself or outsourced but it seems a lot of it is popping it up all over the web without my authorization. Do you know any ways to help protect against content from being stolen? I’d certainly appreciate it.

  18. Gisele Mosure Reply

    After study many of the blogs in your internet site now, and i genuinely as if your technique of blogging. I bookmarked it to my bookmark site list and you will be checking back soon. Pls check out my internet site also and inform me what you think.

  19. www.faytech.us Reply

    Faytech North America is a touch screen Manufacturer of both monitors and pcs. They specialize in the design, development, manufacturing and marketing of Capacitive touch screen, Resistive touch screen, Industrial touch screen, IP65 touch screen, touchscreen monitors and integrated touchscreen PCs. Contact them at http://www.faytech.us, 121 Varick Street, New York, NY 10013, +1 646 205 3214

  20. Trinh Caparelli Reply

    Thanks , I have recently been searching for information about this topic for ages and yours is the best I’ve discovered till now. But, what about the conclusion? Are you sure about the source?

  21. Music industry Reply

    I’m so happy to read this. This is the type of manual that needs to be given and not the accidental misinformation that is at the other blogs. Appreciate your sharing this greatest doc.

  22. Sapid Agency Reply

    Sapid Agency is a Search Engine Optimization company in New York City that provides SEO Services. Their proprietary SEO strategies help struggling websites and aspiring business owners to rank their websites higher in multiple search engines like Google , Yahoo and Bing. They provide local and gmb map ranking for businesses in NYC and many other local areas. Find more at https://www.sapidagency.com/ @ 145 E 57TH NEW YORK, NY 10022, USA, +1 971 341 5608 USA

  23. Sapid Agency Reply

    Sapid Agency is a Search Engine Optimization company in New York City that provides SEO Services. Their proprietary SEO strategies help struggling websites and aspiring business owners to rank their websites higher in multiple search engines like Google , Yahoo and Bing. They provide local and gmb map ranking for businesses in NYC and many other local areas. Find more at https://www.sapidagency.com/ @ 145 E 57TH NEW YORK, NY 10022, USA, +1 971 341 5608 USA

  24. vpn Reply

    As I site possessor I believe the content matter here is rattling fantastic , appreciate it for your hard work. You should keep it up forever! Best of luck.

  25. internet Reply

    Wow, incredible weblog layout! How lengthy have you been running a blog for? you make blogging look easy. The total glance of your web site is fantastic, let alone the content material!

  26. DMV day parties Reply

    Hi! This post could not be written any better! Reading this post reminds me of my good old room mate! He always kept talking about this. I will forward this write-up to him. Fairly certain he will have a good read. Many thanks for sharing!

  27. Tractor Workshop Manuals Reply

    You have noted very interesting points! ps nice web site. “There is no cure for birth and death save to enjoy the interval. The dark background which death supplies brings out the tender colors of life in all their purity.” by George Santayana..

  28. Joe Saint Reply

    I was extremely pleased to find this website. I wanted to thank you for ones time for this fantastic read!! I definitely appreciated every part of it and I have you bookmarked to check out new stuff on your blog.

  29. Christine Reply

    Great work! That is the kind of information that are meant to be shared across the web.
    Disgrace on the search engines for no longer positioning this post higher!
    Come on over and discuss with my website . Thank you =)

  30. moving company sarasota Reply

    Thanks for the sensible critique. Me & my neighbor were just preparing to do some research about this. We got a grab a book from our area library but I think I learned more from this post. I’m very glad to see such magnificent info being shared freely out there.

  31. dotafrog Reply

    I definitely wanted to compose a message so as to express gratitude to you for all the fabulous guidelines you are showing here. My extended internet research has at the end been paid with awesome facts and techniques to share with my neighbours. I would express that most of us readers actually are really endowed to exist in a wonderful site with very many marvellous people with valuable points. I feel rather privileged to have seen the webpages and look forward to many more exciting minutes reading here. Thanks once more for everything.

  32. John Deere Service Manuals Reply

    I am really impressed with your writing abilities as smartly with the format on your weblog. Is this a paid subject or did you modify it yourself? Either way stay up the excellent quality writing, it is rare to peer a nice blog like this one nowadays..

  33. Malik Rousse Reply

    Hullo there, just turned out to be conscious of your web page through The Big G, and realized that it’s quite informational. I’ll take pleasure in should you continue on this informative article.

  34. where to buy CBD Reply

    you are really a excellent webmaster. The site loading speed is incredible. It kind of feels that you’re doing any unique trick. Moreover, The contents are masterwork. you’ve done a excellent job in this topic!

  35. Bowie Braiding salon Reply

    Nice post. I was checking continuously this blog and I’m impressed! Very useful info specially the last part 🙂 I care for such information much. I was seeking this certain information for a long time. Thank you and good luck.

  36. soccer streams Reply

    I must point out my love for your kind-heartedness in support of men and women who really need help on your study. Your special commitment to getting the solution all through appeared to be remarkably advantageous and has continually empowered professionals like me to reach their pursuits. The insightful help implies much to me and somewhat more to my colleagues. Thanks a lot; from everyone of us.

  37. Electric Mountain Bikes Reply

    Have you ever thought about publishing an e-book or guest authoring on other sites? I have a blog based upon on the same ideas you discuss and would really like to have you share some stories/information. I know my visitors would enjoy your work. If you are even remotely interested, feel free to send me an email.

  38. refurbished laptops Reply

    I precisely needed to appreciate you again. I’m not certain what I would’ve achieved in the absence of the type of techniques contributed by you directly on such situation. This was a very troublesome matter in my opinion, however , discovering a new expert technique you solved the issue took me to cry over joy. I’m happy for the advice and then hope that you recognize what a powerful job you happen to be undertaking teaching many people all through your webpage. I know that you have never encountered any of us.

  39. BWI Airport Cab Reply

    Great post. I was checking continuously this blog and I am impressed! Very useful info particularly the last part 🙂 I care for such information much. I was seeking this particular information for a very long time. Thank you and best of luck.

  40. tech course bundle Reply

    I think this is one of the most significant information for me. And i am glad reading your article. But wanna remark on some general things, The website style is ideal, the articles is really excellent : D. Good job, cheers

  41. Prints on aluminium Reply

    I have seen a great deal of useful elements on your site about computers. However, I’ve got the thoughts and opinions that netbooks are still more or less not powerful adequately to be a wise decision if you often do projects that require plenty of power, for example video touch-ups. But for world-wide-web surfing, microsoft word processing, and most other frequent computer functions they are just fine, provided you can’t mind the screen size. Many thanks sharing your ideas.

  42. www.seedandspark.com Reply

    I like what you guys are up also. Such intelligent work and reporting!
    Carry on the excellent works guys I have incorporated you guys
    to my blogroll. I think it will improve the value of my website :).

  43. https://devpost.com/ Reply

    I like what you guys are up too. Such intelligent work and reporting!
    Carry on the superb works guys I have incorporated you guys to
    my blogroll. I think it’ll improve the value of my web site :).

  44. adcada Reply

    Excellent post. I was checking continuously this blog and I am impressed! Extremely helpful info particularly the last part 🙂 I care for such info a lot. I was seeking this particular info for a long time. Thank you and good luck.

  45. Precious Markovich Reply

    I loved as much as you’ll receive carried out right here. The sketch is attractive, your authored material stylish. nonetheless, you command get bought an impatience over that you wish be delivering the following. unwell unquestionably come more formerly again as exactly the same nearly a lot often inside case you shield this increase.

  46. Fast cash Reply

    I have read a few good stuff here. Certainly worth bookmarking for revisiting. I surprise how much effort you put to create such a magnificent informative website.

  47. what is admob in hindi Reply

    I am not sure where you’re getting your info, but great topic. I needs to spend some time learning much more or understanding more. Thanks for fantastic information I was looking for this information for my mission.

  48. Misa Reply

    Hi, Neat post. There is a problem with your website in internet explorer, would check this… IE still is the market leader and a good portion of people will miss your great writing due to this problem.

  49. แต่งงาน Reply

    Thanks for discussing your ideas. I would also like to mention that video games have been ever evolving. Better technology and inventions have aided create practical and enjoyable games. All these entertainment video games were not that sensible when the real concept was being tried. Just like other styles of electronics, video games as well have had to advance by means of many ages. This itself is testimony on the fast growth of video games.

  50. www.metroclick.com Reply

    I merely wish to share it with you that I am new to putting up a blog and absolutely loved your page. Quite possibly I am likely to bookmark your blog post . You absolutely have impressive article blog posts. Be Grateful For it for telling with us your very own website report

  51. SapidAgency Reply

    Heya there, just became aware about your blogging site through Bing, and discovered that it’s pretty helpful. I will take pleasure in should you decide maintain this informative article.

  52. Metroclick Reply

    It really is almost close to impossible to encounter well-qualified people on this content, nevertheless you look like you understand the things you’re covering! Many Thanks